Inca Religion

Inca Religion

The Inca Religion allowed conquered cultures to incorporate their own religion and beliefs. The Incas were a polytheistic people with a rich mythology. While they left no written record of their religion, they did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries.

Viracocha is the name of the Inca god of creation. All things and all other gods came from Viracocha. The legend is that he rose out of Lake Titicaca after the Great Flood that destroyed all life.

Viracocha made the Inca out of the clay of the earth and the rocks in the mountains. He also created the sun god Inti who fathered Manco Capac, the first Inca Emperor and Mamaquilla (the Moon Goddess) linked to the account of time and timing, the first female deity .

There are many gods in the Inca pantheon. The Inca’s worship of nature demanded that almost all natural phenomenons had a god associated with it. In addition, they also practiced ancestor worship. However, the sun god Inti was considered to be the most important god at the time.

Inca ReligionBecause Inti gave the Inca warmth and light, he was often referred to as “The Giver of Life.” If you ever happen upon an Inca temple, chances are it belongs to Inti.

In addition, many worshipped supernatural powers, which are identified by objects or places. They were called huacas and are scattered throughout the inca empire.

Many people associate societies such as the Mayans, Aztecs, and Inca with human sacrifice. While these societies did practice it (some more than others), it was relatively rare in Inca culture.

Inca religion was rich with nature worship and festivals. In fact, festivals were held every month. With so many deities, it was only natural that divination was an important part of Inca religion. The Inca felt it was necessary to find out what the gods wanted in order to appease them.

Even today tourists can see the festival of Inti Raymi near the Inca capital Cusco on June 24th every year. This festival marked the winter solstice for the Inca.

Inca Gods

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Inca Art
Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different.

Inca Architecture
The Inca were masterful architects and stone masons. Inca Architecture has withstood centuries of abuse and has come out largely intact.

Inca Culture
When it comes to the Inca it can get a little difficult to separate fact from speculation but the indisputable truth is that Inca culture had a dramatic impact on present day Peru.

Inca Religion
The Incas did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries.

Inca Music
Inca Music is the result of centuries of ethnic and cultural mix. The wind and percussion instruments are the best known of Inca Music. PanPipes, Flutes and the Kena are just some examples of it.

Inca Gods
The Inca were polytheists, the sun was the most important aspect of life and there was a clear tendency to worship the stars and the moon.

Inca Artifacts
The Inca people were skilled craftsmen, they made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts. This artifacts have been found by archaeologists and tell us many things that we know about the Incas way of life.

Inca Masks
The Inca masks are a tradition in Peru that has been going on for centuries, it is part of the inca culture.

Inca Clothing
Inca men used to wear tunics which were knee length, grass shoes or leather sandals, headbands, headdresses, belts and bags.

Inca Culture

The Inca culture is part myth and part Peruvian history. Without any written records, the Inca culture becomes almost like a legend.

Here’s a people that existed for a three hundred year span and ruled almost all of South America for about one hundred years.

An Empire as powerful the Incas should have left an indelible mark in history, but in this case we’re left with somewhat of an incomplete puzzle.

The question is how do you nail down the culture that’s part Roman Empire and part City of Atlantis? When it comes to the Inca it can get a little difficult to separate fact from speculation but the indisputable truth is that it had a dramatic impact on present day Peru

The main reason the Inca are so mysterious is that they didn’t leave any written records of their history for modern historians to examine. In addition, the Spartan nature of Inca art reveals little about the culture beyond their preference for functionality over aesthetics.

The History

While the Inca had no written language, they did have an oral tradition that kept their history alive by passing down from generation to generation. These verbal historians taught each new generation of Inca about the gods, the emperors, and other facets of Inca lore.

Much of the lore passed down from the historians had to do with the creation of the Inca and the gods. The sun was one of the most important aspects of their culture. In fact, the Inca believed that their emperors where descended from the Sun god Inti. The lineage began when the first Inca emperor, Manco Capac was born from Inti on an island in Lake Titicaca.

The verbal history of the Inca tells us that 11 more rulers would follow before the Inca were finally conquered by the Spanish.

Society and Politics in Inca Culture

History wasn’t the only area that Inca culture relied on their people for information. Inca society also lacked a formal mathematical system.

Instead, it relied on colored strings with knots tied into them to keep records of livestock and other business. However these strings, or quipus, were not self explanatory.

They required a “rememberer” to understand what the strings meant and while these quipu still exist today, their meaning died with the “rememberers.”

Political ties were also important to the Inca. In fact, the political realm is where we see the most ornate form of Inca art: the tapestries. These colorful woven cloths were given to solidify contracts between the capital of Cusco and the governing powers of outlying territories. These ties were vital in keeping the vast Inca Empire united.

The information we have about Inca culture comes from a mixture of archaeological information and verbal stories that survived through the centuries. Sites such as Machu Picchu have added considerably to what we know about the Inca, however much of their culture still remains a mystery to the modern world. While the Roman Empire left their history in detailed records in buildings, the Inca Empire left theirs in the stories of their descendants resulting in a somewhat fractured and mystical picture of their culture.

Related Info

Inca Art
Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different.

Inca Architecture
The Inca were masterful architects and stone masons. Inca Architecture has withstood centuries of abuse and has come out largely intact.

Inca Culture
When it comes to the Inca it can get a little difficult to separate fact from speculation but the indisputable truth is that Inca culture had a dramatic impact on present day Peru.

Inca Religion
The Incas did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries.

Inca Music
Inca Music is the result of centuries of ethnic and cultural mix. The wind and percussion instruments are the best known of Inca Music. PanPipes, Flutes and the Kena are just some examples of it.

Inca Gods
The Inca were polytheists, the sun was the most important aspect of life and there was a clear tendency to worship the stars and the moon.

Inca Artifacts
The Inca people were skilled craftsmen, they made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts. This artifacts have been found by archaeologists and tell us many things that we know about the Incas way of life.

Inca Masks
The Inca masks are a tradition in Peru that has been going on for centuries, it is part of the inca culture.

Inca Clothing
Inca men used to wear tunics which were knee length, grass shoes or leather sandals, headbands, headdresses, belts and bags.

Used Viking Yachts for Sale
Details and info on Viking yachts. Building quality sportfishing and motoryachts since the early 1960’s. Viking yachts does most of its manufacturing in-house.

Inca Art

Inca Art

Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different. Still other examples of their art were destroyed simply because the idea of a polytheistic society was appalling to the Christian sensibilities of the Spaniards.

Some art, however, was able to survive the Spanish conquistadors and that art gives us a valuable glimpse at Inca values and their way of life.

Overall, art was quite Spartan. The Inca preferred simple functionality over ornate decoration in all cases except for their textiles (which we’ll discuss in a bit). Rather than create aesthetic paintings, the Inca preferred to sculpt religious figurines and create architectural wonders that inspire speculation and awe to this day.

Like most other Inca artwork, the architecture was very basic with the possible exception of the trapezoidal shape of doorways and windows. However what the architecture lacked in aesthetics it made up for in functionality. The Inca system of building without mortar made their structures resistant to seismic activity; an important feature in a region prone to earthquakes.

Inca Art Inca Art

Tapestries

Inca TapestriesIn the world of Inca art where plain and simple are the norm, the tapestries stood out as crown jewels. These tapestries where generally made from alpaca and were intricately woven by hand.

Unlike the unadorned Inca architecture and sculpture, the tapestries were ornately created with geometric shapes and vibrant colors.

These tapestries were also quite lavish with many of them requiring two people to weave using a combination of loom and needle work. These works could take an impressively long time to make and reach knee length.

Of course, the tapestries weren’t purely ornamental. During the reign of the Inca Empire tapestries were used as consideration to bind political contracts and as a result, tapestries displayed political power.

It’s unfortunate that more work of the Incas didn’t survive the Spanish conquest of Peru, but the art that did survive paints a picture of a practical people who valued functionality over aesthetics. However the Incas artistic flair does show up in their tapestries which became an important status symbol for political leaders of the time.

Inca ArtInca Art

These tapestries were so spectacular that they’re considered an important part of Peruvian history to this day. Inca art is a perfect example of how functionality can be beautiful in itself.

Moche Culture

Mochica or Moche culture emerged and developed in the centuries I and VII, taking place in the long and narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru where the remains of their pyramid temples, palaces, fortresses and irrigation systems are proof of their high artistic development and technological and complex organization.

The Moche innovated technology and metallurgical production with intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornaments, weapons and tools.

Moche Culture and Art

Chavin Culture

The art of the Chavín culture (900-200 B.C) influenced all its neighbours and was felt long after its decline. The Chavín was not a warlike culture and spread its influence through peaceful interaction.

The Chavin influenced an area covering most of the northern Peru’s highlands and coast. It is believed they worshipped the jaguars, since this animal appears in many of their pottery.
This period represents the greatest early development in weaving, pottery and agriculture.

Chavin Culture and Art

Chimu Culture

The Chimu Culture built a capital at Chan Chan, north of Trujillo. Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 20 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people.

Pottery from the Chimu Culture was mass-produced and manufactured from readily available clay found along the coast of Peru. Head cups, head vases, etc. are typical of the Chimu Culture. The winged eyes used in their artwork are said to be the eyes of dead souls, and it looks like they were meant to be funerary items. Designs on the cup rim, back, and sides resemble Mesoamerican writing.

Chimu Culture and Art

Peruvian Bracelets
The unique materials and beautiful designs used to create Peruvian bracelets make it ideal for both personal adornment and loving gifts for friends and family.

Peruvian Hats
The beautiful Peruvian hats offer shelter and comfort. They are made in Peru using Andean naturals colors. The smoothness of the inca hats impress you and the thermal protection is perfect for low temperatures.

Get creative! Free Online Art Classes offers information-rich art instruction presented in simple, step-by-step formats that have proven to be successful for students I have taught over the past thirty years. Many of the art lessons have videos that I have created to show how to develop basic skills and techniques.

Facts Machu Picchu The Lost City of the Incas

Peru Machu, Peru Picchu

Facts Machu Picchu

Some people call it Peru Machu or Peru Picchu, but the facts Machu Picchu uncover are really just educated guesses because so little is known about this ancient city. Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, is nestled 7,500 feet above sea level in the Andean mountain range above the Urubamba valley.

Many questions remain unanswered but here are a few generally accepted ideas about this ancient city on a mountain peak: It was probably created around 1450 near the height of the Inca Empire. No one knows what the real purpose of Machu Picchu was. Some people speculate it was a prison and some say it was a defensive retreat, but the most common belief is that Machu Picchu was the estate of an Inca emperor. Like I said earlier, most of the facts are really just agreed upon speculations.

Facts Macchu Picchu

It is also generally accepted that Machu Picchu was a self-sustaining city. The evidence for this comes from the farming terraces. It seems like a reasonable conclusion. If you are building a city high in the mountains it would be difficult to travel to other cities to get the supplies you need. However even the self-sufficiency of Machu Picchu is under debate. Some believe that the farming terraces are actually structures to help Machu Picchu withstand earthquakes.

Machu Picchu Architecture

Facts Machu Picchu

Probably one of the most significant features of Machu Picchu history is the architecture. Like the pyramids of Egypt, it was created using massive stones hauled over great distances. However, unlike the Egyptians, the Incas did nott use any kind of mortar to bind their stones together. Instead they cut the stones with such precision that they fit together so tightly that you could not even fit a thin knife blade between them.

Facts Macchu Picchu

This design made the Inca structures highly resistant to earthquakes and it?s one of the reasons Machu Picchu is still standing today.

There is a lot of speculation surrounding how the Incas could have made such cut stone to such precise dimensions without the help of modern technology. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that the Inca had extraterrestrial help.

But the Incas did it, the main facts Machu Picchu architecture is well known for, are the real draw of the lost city of the incas. One of the new seven wonders of the World

The facts Machu Picchu uncovered are so amazing that on July 7, 2007 it was named one of the new seven wonders of the world joining other wonders such as the Great Wall of China. Tourism to Machu Picchu is also increasing. Last year roughly 800,000 visitors came to visit the lost city of the incas prompting some concern about taking measures to preserve the site.

But perhaps the most interesting of the facts Machu Picchu reveal is that it is not the only lost city high in the Andean mountains. Archeologist and treasure hunters have been following rumors of other cities for years. So far none have been found. But, of course, that doesn?t mean that they?re not there. They?re just yet to be discovered.

Machu Picchu Video

Machu Picchu is one of the most important historical monuments in the world. The following documentary explains many of the mysteries of this ancient city. How the Incas built more than 14,000 miles of roads, 600 terraces, thousands of steps, several temples, 16 fountains (sometimes using up to 20 tons stones) and why they abandoned the city.

Inca Architecture

Outskirts of Cusco

Inca Architecture captivates us even today. Not a lot is known about the Inca for certain. However the one thing that is known is that they possessed exceptional architectural skills. To this day, there is a lot of speculation about how the Inca were able to create the amount of precision seen in their stone cutting.

Theories range from the simple explanation of inserting a wooden wedge into cracks in the stone and soaking it with water until the wood expands and fractures the rock, to the claims of extraterrestrial intervention. However they did it, the unique building method that earned the Inca site of Machu Picchu a place among the seven wonders of the modern world.

Stone Used in Inca Architecture

The Inca were a practical people and tended to use whatever stone was at hand. As a result, the material used for Inca Architecture ranged from limestone to granite. These stones were sometimes quite large and could weigh several tons. Some of these stones had to be moved over 20 miles before the reached the construction site.

The method of transportation is also a source of speculation, but many think that the Inca used a system of logs and ramps similar to those used by the Egyptians to build the pyramids. If a construction site like Machu Picchu was built today it would require complex and heavy machinery far beyond the tools that were actually used. To maintain and manage most modern equipment companies use CMMS or work order software to properly maintain their equipment. The work order software helps scheduling of maintenance for daily work.

Building Method

SacsahuamanThe Inca building methods completely lacked mortar. There was nothing to hold the stones in place. Instead, the Inca cut their stones to such precise dimensions that they fit together perfectly. How the Inca were able to accomplish this is a hotly debated issue, but there are two theories that seem to be prevalent.

The first theory is that the Inca inserted wedges of wood into cracks in the stone and then soaked them in water causing them to expand and fracture the rock. Proponents of this theory point out that traditional societies throughout the globe developed this technique without outside influence and used it with great success.

The other theory is that the Inca used metal tools to make a series of holes in the rock along a line (much like perforated paper). Once the line was complete, the rock would be easier to split along the line.

Proponents of this theory offer examples of stone found that have a series of holes in a line, however the theory’s opponents point out that these stones could have been made after the Spanish conquest because the holes appeared to be made with more advanced tools than the Inca possessed.

We may never know which theory is right, but no matter how the stones were cut, the result is amazing Inca Architecture that has withstood centuries of weather and earthquakes. As it turns out, the Inca’s mortar-less design is very resistant to seismic activity. How the Inca were able to create their architectural marvels may never be known for certain, however one fact is universally agreed upon.

The Inca were masterful architects and stone masons. Inca Architecture has withstood centuries of abuse and has come out largely intact. It’s clear the architecture was one of the greatest art forms of the Inca Empire. The stones have stood the test of time and have needed little maintenance, Machu Picchu has lasted for hundreds of years without much maintaining. If a construction site like Machu Picchu was built today it would require complex and heavy machinery far beyond the tools that were actually used.

Related Info

Inca Art
Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different.

Inca Architecture
The Inca were masterful architects and stone masons. Inca Architecture has withstood centuries of abuse and has come out largely intact.

Inca Culture
When it comes to the Inca it can get a little difficult to separate fact from speculation but the indisputable truth is that Inca culture had a dramatic impact on present day Peru.

Inca Religion
The Incas did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries.

Inca Music
Inca Music is the result of centuries of ethnic and cultural mix. The wind and percussion instruments are the best known of Inca Music. PanPipes, Flutes and the Kena are just some examples of it.

Inca Gods
The Inca were polytheists, the sun was the most important aspect of life and there was a clear tendency to worship the stars and the moon.

Inca Artifacts
The Inca people were skilled craftsmen, they made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts. This artifacts have been found by archaeologists and tell us many things that we know about the Incas way of life.

Inca Masks
The Inca masks are a tradition in Peru that has been going on for centuries, it is part of the inca culture.

Inca Clothing
Inca men used to wear tunics which were knee length, grass shoes or leather sandals, headbands, headdresses, belts and bags.

Francisco Pizarro Biography of the main Spanish Conquistador

Francisco Pizarro

Francisco Pizarro biography tell us everything about the man that conquered the great Inca Empire and founded Lima, the capital of Peru.

He was born in Trujillo, Spain in 1478, his father, Gonzalo Pizarro Rodríguez de Aguilar, was the Royal Infantry Captain of Spain. His mother, Francisca González Mateos, was just a regular person who later married to another man.

He was an illegitimate son, his parents never got married, he was brought up by his mother´s parents. Pizarro never went to school so didn´t learn to read. That´s why he couldn´t have access to a proper job and ended up herding pigs for more than 14 years.

Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain on February 13, 1502, towards the West Indies, now Haiti, with 2,500 colonists on a thirty ships fleet. There he lived with his father’s brother.

In 1513, he went with Vasco Núñez de Balboa on an expedition to explore what is now known as Panama. They founded Panama City and stayed there for a few years. Francisco Pizarro became a close partner of Pedrarias Dávila, the newly appointed governor. He asked Pizarro to personally deal with the capture of Vasco Nuñez de Balboa.

Balboa was duly convicted and beheaded in January of 1519. For his loyalty to the Governor, Pizarro was offered the position of mayor and magistrate of the recently founded city.

Expeditions to South America

Diego de AlmagroIn 1524, Pizarro partnered with a priest, Hernando de Luque, and a soldier, Diego de Almagro, to explore and conquer the south.

They agreed to divide equally among themselves the empire they hoped to discover, and it seems that the agreement was strictly verbal. Pizarro did command the expedition, Almagro was in charge of the military and food supplies, and Luque, the priest, of finances and other provisions.

The first of three expeditions left from Panama on September 13, 1524 but it was a failure due to hostile natives, bad weather and food shortages.

Two years after the first very unsuccessful expedition, Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque started planning a second expedition. They had to convince the Governor and finally managed to get permission.

The second expedition left Panama on 1526 and this time they found evidence of the gold, silver, emeralds, etc. but they also found evidence of the powerful Inca army. Almagro went back to Panama with the treasure evidence and the news of the discovery of a wealthy land to convince the Governor to send more reinforcements, but this time it was rejected.

As a result, Pizarro went back to Spain to tell the king and Queen the news in person, he told them about the abundance of gold and silver and it was actually the Queen, in the absence of the King, who signed the Capitulación de Toledo, a license document which authorized Francisco Pizarro to proceed with the conquest of Peru.

One of the conditions was that Pizarro raise a force of two hundred and fifty men within six months. He had enough time to convince his brother, Hernándo Pizarro, and other friends to join him on his third expedition. When everything was ready, they left Spain the following year on a three ships fleet.

The Conquest of Peru

Francisco PizarroIn 1532, Pizarro, after a fierce fighting with natives, arrived to Tumbes but the city was completely destroyed and abandoned. Then he led an excursion into the interior of the land and established the first Spanish settlement in Peru, San Miguel de Piura in July 1532.

After marching nearly two months towards Cajamarca, Pizarro and just under 200 men arrived and initiated proceedings for a meeting with Atahualpa, the last sovereign emperor of the Inca Empire.

Atahualpa entered the square of the city to meet with Pizarro and it ended up with a massive slaughter of the inca. The Spanish were successful and Atahualpa’s 12-man honor guard were executed. Pizarro kept the Inca alive.

Francisco Pizarro

Despite fulfilling his promise of filling one room with gold and two with silver, Atahualpa was executed on July 26, 1533.

Only a year later, Pizarro invaded Cuzco with indigenous troops sealing the conquest of Peru. He ruled Peru for almost ten years and started the decline of Inca culture. He also founded the city of Lima on January 18, 1535.

Pizarro was killed by the son of Almagro on June 26, 1541, he wanted revenge for the death of his father. Pizarro’s half brother killed Almagro following his orders.

The Nazca Lines in Peru An imposing and enigmatic legacy

The Nazca lines in Peru were made many centuries before the rise of the Inca empire and they are one of the most important legacies of ancient pre-Inca Peruvian culture. Basically they are are geoglyphs and geometric line clearings in the Peruvian desert.

The German scientist Von Däniken, in his book “The Response of the Gods”, claims the lines were treated as signals and landing strips for alien spacecraft. But it is Maria Reiche, a German immigrant and apprentice archaeologist, who defined them as the strange testimony and legacy of the ancient Peruvian cultures:

Nazca Lines in Peru
The Spider, Nazca Lines. Photo taken by Maria Reiche

“The Nazca lines in Peru are nothing less than a documented history of science and scientists of the pre-Columbian Peru. A scientific tradition in which the ancient Peruvians developed an alphabet to record the most important astronomical events of those days. The Nazca lines are the pages of a book written with this strange alphabet.”

You can see figures such as big giant spiders, lizards, llamas, monkeys, dogs, hummingbirds, etc., not to mention the zigzagging and geometric designs. There are a lot of unanswered questions regarding the lines such as how they remain intact after hundreds of years or even why they embarked in such a big project.

The Nazca Line Drawings Discovery

In 1927, archaeologist Mejia Xespe-disciple of Julio C. Tello, the Father of the Peruvian-Archeology was informed about the presence of some mysterious geoglyphs or lines on the ground in the Peruvian coast but at that time it wasn´t given much importance. They were more attracted to other archaeological sites like the majestic Machu Picchu in Cuzco and the fascinating cultures of Chavin and Chan Chan among others.

The same year, 1927, another researcher arrived to Peru, Dr. Paul Kosok, he was very attracted to these cultural pre-Columbian expressions. In one of his first trips to the south of the country, he stopped at the top of a plateau and saw extensive lines on both sides of the road near the mountains. After some onsite research, he was amazed to find that one of the figures had the unmistakable shape of a bird flying.

In 1946, Kosok returned to his country but not before suggesting to Maria Reiche, who had assisted him on the investigations, to continue studying the Nazca line drawings that he had begun to decode. María devoted her life to this work.

Maria Reiche, studied the Nazca line drawings for 50 years. She explained how these lines were used by ancient peruvian astronomers as if they were a gigantic solar and lunar calendar, nestled in the sand, legends and myths of the locals.

The Nazca Lines in Peru
A cultural catalog in the peruvian desert
The Monkey, Nazca Lines. Photo taken by Maria Reiche

Among the larger geoglyphs are a bird of nearly 300 m, a lizard of 180 m , a pelican of 135 m, a condor of 135 m, a monkey of 135 m and a spider of 42 meters. These dimensions are cause for admiration.

Some of the animal designs that are perceived in Nazca are a whale, a dog with long legs and tail, two llamas, various birds such as herons, the crane, the pelican, the gull, the famous hummingbird and the parrot. In the category of reptiles, there is an alligator, an iguana and a snake.

How to Get to Nazca?

If you plan to visit the Nazca Lines, you must take a bus from Lima because there are no flights between both cities. The distance is 475 Km and the bus will take you in approximately 5.5 to 6 hours. You can stay in the city of Nazca or Ica and get to know beautiful places in the area like Chincha or Paracas.

How much does it cost to fly over the lines?

The Nazca Lines in Peru are an incredible place where artists drew pictures in the sand; pictures that they themselves couldn’t appreciate, because you need to be flying to do so.

If you are up to sitting down in a little Cesna for about 40 minutes ride and look down on a spider, a monkey, a dog, an astronaut a whale among many other and witness this ancient place, it will only cost you around 45 US dollars. Try to avoid eating before the flight otherwise you could feel sick. While you may think it would be a good idea to walk among the lines, you should avoid doing this. Damaging or vandalizing the lines would be considered a criminal activity. Even if done by accident it would be best to not walk through them. A Los Angeles criminal defense attorney may be able to assist you with any type of criminal case you are faced with.

Inca Civilization

The History of Inca Civilization

Inca Civilization

The Inca Civilization lasted for three hundred years from the 13th to the 16th century. Getting a true picture of Inca history is difficult because the Incas had no written language and passed their history down orally from one generation to the next.

What we know about the Incas has been pieced together from archaeological evidence and the oral history still present in Peru.

Tracing the history of the Incas is difficult because the Inca relied heavily on their people to carry important information. Since the Incas had no written language, history was passed down by oral historians.

Even the Inca mathematical system required special people to interpret it. The Incas used a system of knotted, colored string called quipu to keep track of livestock and other business. However these strings required special “rememberers” to interpret what the strings meant. This finance system of the Incas was quite advanced. Although you would not need a dedicated representative to understand the system, it was more than enough to handle and run business for the Incas. While quipu still exist today, their meaning died with the rememberers.

Inca Civilization

The Incas were a polytheistic people that believed in a variety of gods. Most of these gods were attached to natural objects such as the sun, the moon, and the earth.

In fact, the Incas believed that their Emperors were descended from the sun god Inti. This gave Inca Emperors the same kind of demigod status that the Egyptian Pharaons had.

In general, Inca art was plain. They valued functionality over aesthetics and most of their sculpture had ceremonial purposes. Their architecture was precise and Spartan.

The Incas did, however, create very elaborate, brightly colored tapestries made from alpaca. But even these ornate Inca tapestries had the practical purpose of binding political contracts.

The greatest achievement of Inca civilization was the architecture.

The Inca built their buildings by placing stones together in such a tight fashion that not even a thin knife blade could fit between them.

This method of building required no mortar and was extremely resistant to seismic activity. As a result, sites like Machu Picchu remain largely intact.

Today building the pyramids would be an insanely difficult project.

The Rise and Fall of the Inca Empire

For the first 200 years the Inca were a small group of people; however around 1438 the Emperor Pachacutec’s aggressive military expansion turned the Inca civilization into the most powerful nation in South America. Pachacutec’s rule is generally accepted to be the starting point of the Inca Empire that would reign for the next two generations.

After the death of Pachacutec’s successor, the Inca Empire was split into two factions, each led by one of the Emperor’s sons. The division eventually led to a civil war that wouldn’t be resolved until 1532; the same year the Spanish conquistadors arrived. Unfortunately a lot of Inca art would be lost during the Spanish rule.

In their quest for gold and silver, the conquistadors would melt down countless examples of Inca metalwork. While some aspects of Inca civilization would remain after the Spanish conquest, most of it would pass into myth.

Related Info

Inca Art
Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different.

Inca Architecture
The Inca were masterful architects and stone masons. Inca Architecture has withstood centuries of abuse and has come out largely intact.

Inca Culture
When it comes to the Inca it can get a little difficult to separate fact from speculation but the indisputable truth is that Inca culture had a dramatic impact on present day Peru.

Inca Religion
The Incas did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries.

Inca Music
Inca Music is the result of centuries of ethnic and cultural mix. The wind and percussion instruments are the best known of Inca Music. PanPipes, Flutes and the Kena are just some examples of it.

Inca Gods
The Inca were polytheists, the sun was the most important aspect of life and there was a clear tendency to worship the stars and the moon.

Inca Artifacts
The Inca people were skilled craftsmen, they made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts. This artifacts have been found by archaeologists and tell us many things that we know about the Incas way of life.

Inca Masks
The Inca masks are a tradition in Peru that has been going on for centuries, it is part of the inca culture.

Inca Clothing
Inca men used to wear tunics which were knee length, grass shoes or leather sandals, headbands, headdresses, belts and bags.

Moche Culture and Art

The Moche culture was established on the north coast of Peru (100-700 A.D) in the Lambayeque Valley. They built massive pyramids that still can be seen in the surrounding countryside, known as “Huacas”, meaning sacred place in the inca dialect.

Ceramics were the main art form in this culture. Also, metallurgy developed, it was known how to cast, solder and alloy metal. The Moche ceramists created both sculptural and plain paint-ornamented vessels. The most popular vessel form was the traditional stirrup spout vessel.

The decorative motifs of the Moche ceramics were very diverse, animals, plants, human life and mythology among others. The paint-decorated ceramics represented ceremonial rituals and the scuptural works have been part of the mythology of this culture too.

It seems that the most important religious ritual was a sacrificial ceremony, in which prisoners of war were sacrificed to gods. The main Moche god, Aiapaec, is represented by a human figure with a tiger’s mouth and snarling fangs.

The Warriors must´ve enjoy a special status, they formed small professional armies for control, political domination and territorial security, as evidenced by the complex military buildings strategically located in the valleys and extensive walls that demarcated the small kingdoms.

Moche Culture

Mochica or Moche culture emerged and developed in the centuries I and VII, taking place in the long and narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru where the remains of their pyramid temples, palaces, fortresses and irrigation systems are proof of their high artistic development and technological and complex organization.

The Moche innovated technology and metallurgical production with intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornaments, weapons and tools.

Moche Culture and Art

Chavin Culture

The art of the Chavín culture (900-200 B.C) influenced all its neighbours and was felt long after its decline. The Chavín was not a warlike culture and spread its influence through peaceful interaction.

The Chavin influenced an area covering most of the northern Peru’s highlands and coast. It is believed they worshipped the jaguars, since this animal appears in many of their pottery.
This period represents the greatest early development in weaving, pottery and agriculture.

Chavin Culture and Art

Chimu Culture

The Chimu Culture built a capital at Chan Chan, north of Trujillo. Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 20 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people.

Pottery from the Chimu Culture was mass-produced and manufactured from readily available clay found along the coast of Peru. Head cups, head vases, etc. are typical of the Chimu Culture. The winged eyes used in their artwork are said to be the eyes of dead souls, and it looks like they were meant to be funerary items. Designs on the cup rim, back, and sides resemble Mesoamerican writing.

Chimu Culture and Art

Peruvian Bracelets

The unique materials and beautiful designs used to create Peruvian bracelets make it ideal for both personal adornment and loving gifts for friends and family.

Peruvian Hats
The beautiful Peruvian hats offer shelter and comfort. They are made in Peru using Andean naturals colors. The smoothness of the inca hats impress you and the thermal protection is perfect for low temperatures.

San Isidro Peru

San Isidro Peru is one of the 43 districts of the Capital Lima, it has a huge amount of green areas. The Olivar Park has several olive trees planted for more than four centuries and was declared a National Monument in 1959.

San Isidro is a major financial quarter, you can see that many banks and businesses have set up their offices in modern building blocks.

There are more than 30 embassies, 20 banks, 15 Catholic Churches, synagogues and temples of other religions in San Isidro, you can tell is a nice area. There are important sites and social clubs such as the Lima Golf Club and Real Club de Lima, among others. San Isidro Peru is one of the most modern and beautiful Lima Districts.

San Isidro, in addition to financial and commercial center of Lima, has a great cultural activity, with several theaters, art galleries, libraries and houses of culture.

San Isidro History Brief

San Isidro PeruDuring colonial times, the region was awarded to Mr Nicolás de Rivera, ‘El Mozo’, founder of the City of Kings. In 1560, Don Antonio de Rivera, Attorney General, brought the first olive trees that gave rise to the ‘Bosque del Olivar’ Park. In 1920, the development project started.

It was the sculptor Manuel Piqueras CotolĂ­, who wanted to achieve a quaint neighborhood and certainly some unity of architectural appearance and character.

Currently, San Isidro has become one of the strongest districts, but despite that characterizes modernity, still important legacies of the colonial and indigenous culture, combined with the finest architectural designs, make it one of the most beautiful, traditional and historic districts of Lima.

San Isidro Peru is a district that currently unites tradition, modernity and progress. Its large urban residential development, multifamily buildings, shopping – financial centers and architecture give a special personality and feel to the city.

Places to Visit in San Isidro Peru

El Olivar

The most valuable asset of San Isidro is ‘El Olivar Park’, it stands out among the parks of the city and is a living memory of the history of Lima. El Olivar was declared a National Monument by Supreme Resolution in December 16, 1959. This beautiful place is the most representative of San Isidro.

Basilica de la Virgen del Pilar

The Basilica of the Virgen del Pilar was built in 1948. The altar of the Basilica del Pilar is a beautiful work of Baroque 15 meters high and 9.50 meters wide, carved in wood. The Basilica of the Virgin of Pilar is located at the intersection of Avenida Camino Real and Avenida Paz Soldan, one block from the Olivar.

Casa Hacienda Moreyra

Moreyra house is a beutiful residence of San Isidro and is equipped with a majestic chapel, a basement and some catacombs. It was built during colonial times about 300 years ago, today, the residence is used, with much of its original furniture, as a large restaurant and tourist attraction. While touring the residence, reviews of the home can show it’s beauty. Home advisor reviews could upgrade the home but it is just as beautiful in its unchanged state.

Lima Related Info

City Tour Lima
Lima will impress you with its Pre-Inca pyramids surrounding the city, beautiful beaches, good museums, an active nightlife, fun bars, great restaurants, and the charisma of its people.

Lima Peru Airport
The Lima Peru Airport is the main Airport in the country. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers from Lima City Centre.

Callao Peru
Callao Peru is regarded by many people as a seaside suburb of Lima, in fact, it is certainly a city but can not avoid being overshadowed by its proximity to the capital of Peru, Lima.

The Capital of Peru
Founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1535, the capital of Peru, Lima, lies along the banks of the Rimac River. Overlooking the Pacific Ocean, this “city of Kings” has rapidly transformed into a cosmopolitan melting pot, rich with a variety of cultures while maintaining its Peruvian heritage.

Lima Weather
Weather in Lima is very mild, there is very little rainfall throughout the year. Some people in the Peru Capital, never used an umbrella in their lives.

Lima Shopping
Typical peruvian souvenirs, alpaca (sweaters, ponchos, rugs, coats and blankets), jewelery, handcrafts, inca art, etc. Find it in Lima shopping centres and markets.

Lima Peru Hotels
Lima Peru hotels satisfy any exquisite taste and any high demand, it is highly reccommended to make a research before booking.

Lima Main Districts

Miraflores
Miraflores Lima Peru is now a thriving district, safe and very important in Lima, for their great commercial movement, culture and tourism.

San Isidro
San Isidro Peru is one of the most beautiful, traditional and historic districts of Lima., it has a huge amount of green areas. The Olivar Park has several olive trees planted for more than four centuries and was declared a National Monument in 1959.

Barranco Lima
Barranco Peru is a pleasing Lima suburb whose character remains, where the city has lost much of its own. It’s the heart of the bohemian section of the city. Sitting on the sea, it feels like a small, separate town.