Cajamarca Peru

The lovely city of Cajamarca Peru, traces its cultural heritage back to years before the Incas came to power. Between 1000 and 200 B.C., the entire area was part of a cultural region whose remains we can study even today.

We can learn of their customs by appreciating the silver and gold jewelry designed by their people. More recent than the jewelry findings, rich pottery tells us of the Cajamarca culture. Cultural unity was fostered in the territory during the rein of Cuismanco’s kingdom.

Cajamarca Peru

The same language was used in most areas, as the divine beings were worshiped by most people of the region. At this time, Cajamarca became an important cultural center for the Incas, and their weavers showed excellence in their workmanship, which reflected the dominant culture of the times.

When an Inca leader was taken prisoner in the 1500’s, he gave them gold and silver for his release, and months afterward, he was sentenced to the garrote. A new chapter began at that time, some of it built upon the remains of the old Inca settlement, in the 1600’s. Their livestock prospered and their agriculture grew rich harvests. They produced textiles and designed masterful architecture.

Since the 1770’s, Cajamarca has been quite important to the colony’s economy. The mining industry recovered in this time period, as it had been doing poorly before this.

Today, Cajamarca still works its farms, mines and handcraft traditions. The weather of Cajamarca is temperate – they have an average annual temperature of 57 degrees Fahrenheit, and their rainy season extends from December until March.

The treasure-filled city of Cajamarca Peru is considered the Cultural and Historical Heritage of the Americas. The Incas transformed the city into a major center of religion, military power and administration.

It still retains a great deal of its Spanish architecture, but the dress of the local residents is the most peculiar. The big straw hats worn by many of the locals make the ten gallon hat look like one gallon.

Tours into the country around Cajamarca will show you fertile fields and a pleasant selection of places to stay.

Amazon Rainforest Animals

AMAZON RAINFOREST ANIMALS

Traveling to the Amazon Rainforest has considered by many travelers as being a once in a lifetime experience that will always be remembered and thus never forgotten! The Amazon Rainforest embodies a vibrant paradise, sweeping its travelers off their feet.

The vividness and the beauty of the Amazon Rainforest is primarily due to the fact that it is home to many beautiful and unique animals that cannot be found anywhere else on earth. The animal life is truly tasteful as it is filled with a variety of different animals such as insects, arachnids, reptiles, amphibians, birds as well as mammals.

The diversity of animals is breath taking and absolutely stunning, amongst the different animals that live within the Amazon Rainforest, are the Spider Monkeys. This species of monkeys are known for their capacity of growing up to two feet tall, and the extraordinary ability of hanging upside down from a tree with their tail.

Amazon Rainforest Animals, Capybara
Capibara, the biggest rodent on Earth

Another animal that can be found in the Amazon Rainforest is the Capybara, characterized as the biggest rodent found on Earth, this rodent also spends all its time living and sleeping in the waters of the Amazon Rainforest.

One more beautiful animal that can be found is the Toucan, which is characterized by its large and colourful neck. The Rainforest animals are abundant and can be found in great numbers, they consist of about 20 percent of animals found on earth.

Amazon Rainforest Animals
Toucan

This area has been the heaven for the Amazon rainfores animals for more than 70 000 years. The beauty of the rainforest is unquestionable, but it is also crucial to keep in mind the amount of precious vulnerable animals that are endangered.

The Orangutan monkey and the Jaguar (with only 200 living in the Amazon Rainforest) are amongst the many that are currently endangered and are unfortunately facing extinction

Inca Music A history of tragedy and triumph

Inca Music is the result of centuries of ethnic and cultural mix. The wind and percussion instruments are the best known of Inca Music. PanPipes, Flutes and the Kena are just some examples of it.

The arrival of the Spaniards to Peru meant the end for the Incas and many facets of their fantastic culture. Many transformations happened and new instruments never seen before were introduced. The appearance of the first stringed instruments such as the guitar, mandolin, lute, harp and violin. Inca Music has undergone many changes for thousands of years.

Main Peruvian-Inca Instruments

Its shape is similar to the spanish guitar however there is a variation in the shape, number of strings and the tune, depending on the region. It is used to play different styles of inca – peruvian music such as vals, marinera or huayno.

This is a small guitar shape instrument with 10 strings. Perhaps the best example of native genius was the creation of the Charango, it is made with the shell of an armadillo and also made of wood.

A percussion instrument that has reach out to the world music, it has recently been incorporated in flamenco music. Basically it is a wooden box with a hole at the back. To play it, you must sit down on top of it and slap the front with the palm of your hands. Mostly played for Marinera or Afro Peruvian music.

This instrument is a peruvian flute very well known around the world. It features 5-6 holes and they are made in different sizes out of cain and wood among other materials.

The zampoña is made out of cain. It is a series of tubes of different sizes bound together. This wind instrument is used in many different areas of Peru and it varies in number of tubes and size depending on the region.

Peruvian Music Video

Peru-Inca music left a rich legacy of culture and traditions. Watch some of it.

Andean Music

Some of the most famous inca music around the world is the music from the Andes. From “El Condor pasa” to a full range of andean vibes that has beautifully mixed with other musical tendencies.

But they all have one thing in common, a relaxing and even healing power that you might want to try for less than a dollar or just listen to the samples.

Inca Masks An old tradition in Peru´s culture

The Inca masks are a tradition in Peru that has been going on for centuries, it is part of the inca culture. Facial shapes, various embellishments, rich colors, lines and shapes decorating the forms. They can be found in many materials such as gold, silver, copper and even two of them mixed.

They vary in size, shape and designs. You can check out some examples in the Moche, Chavin and Chimu cultures.

It is said that some of the masks were used to cover the head of a high status inca after death, You can find different styles depending on the area of Perú they come from.

Moche Culture

Mochica or Moche culture emerged and developed in the centuries I and VII, taking place in the long and narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru where the remains of their pyramid temples, palaces, fortresses and irrigation systems are proof of their high artistic development and technological and complex organization.

The Moche innovated technology and metallurgical production with intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornaments, weapons and tools.

Moche Culture and Art

Chavin Culture

The art of the Chavín culture (900-200 B.C) influenced all its neighbours and was felt long after its decline. The Chavín was not a warlike culture and spread its influence through peaceful interaction.

The Chavin influenced an area covering most of the northern Peru’s highlands and coast. It is believed they worshipped the jaguars, since this animal appears in many of their pottery.
This period represents the greatest early development in weaving, pottery and agriculture.

Chavin Culture and Art

Chimu Culture

The Chimu Culture built a capital at Chan Chan, north of Trujillo. Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 20 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people.

Pottery from the Chimu Culture was mass-produced and manufactured from readily available clay found along the coast of Peru. Head cups, head vases, etc. are typical of the Chimu Culture. The winged eyes used in their artwork are said to be the eyes of dead souls, and it looks like they were meant to be funerary items. Designs on the cup rim, back, and sides resemble Mesoamerican writing.

Chimu Culture and Art

Peruvian Bracelets
The unique materials and beautiful designs used to create Peruvian bracelets make it ideal for both personal adornment and loving gifts for friends and family.

Peruvian Hats
The beautiful Peruvian hats offer shelter and comfort. They are made in Peru using Andean naturals colors. The smoothness of the inca hats impress you and the thermal protection is perfect for low temperatures.

Inca Artifacts The Inca way of life

Inca Artifacts were made of gold and other precious metals. The Inca Empire was large and successful, stretching along the western part of South America, down the Andes mountains. The Inca people were skilled craftsmen, they made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts.

This artifacts have been found by archaeologists and tell us many things that we know about the Incas way of life.

The Inca empire had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour, and there were many languages, cultures and peoples involved. They started as a tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century.

Inca Pottery

The Inca artifacts were beautiful objects made of gold, silver, copper and bronze, the Inca pottery style was inspired mainly from Chimú art. They usually decorated their pottery with bright colors of red, yellow, orange and black.

Inca Artifacts Inca Artifacts
About Peru History © Museo Larco Herrera

Gold was reserved for the highest class of Inca society, you know, priests, lords and the Sapa Inca or emperor. The Inca pottery industry was based in the Cuzco area.

Inca Textiles

Inca weaving was one of the greatest textile arts the world has ever seen, They used cotton and the soft wool of the alpaca but they also used the extremely fine wool of the vicuna, the smallest American camel.

Inca Artifacts
About Peru History © Museo Larco Herrera


The finest textiles were made in the convents connected with the Temples of the Sun, by the chosen women, called the Virgins of the Sun, who were trained in this difficult art.

Inca Jewelry

The wearing of jewellery was not uniform throughout the empire. Chimú artisans, for example, continued to wear earrings after their integration into the empire, but in many other regions, only local leaders wore them.

Inca Artifacts
About Peru History © Museo Larco Herrera

Inca Instruments

Most South American percussion and wind instruments date back to Inca or pre-Inca times, stringed instruments were initially introduced by the Spanish, though later they may have been adapted to local conditions or materials.

Inca Artifacts

Inca Weapons

The Incas had wars with other civilizations in the area, the inca army was the most powerful at the time. The used helmets, shields, two-handed wooden swords with serrated edges and bronze or bone-tipped spears among other stuff.

Inca Artifacts Inca Artifacts
About Peru History © Museo Larco Herrera

There are many nice museums throughout Peru, specially in Lima where you can witness some of the most impressive inca artifacts. If you are visiting this amazing country, chances are that you will spend at least 1 or 2 days in Lima so do not miss the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. It is here that you will find the largest, private pre-Columbian art collection in the world.

The Museo de la Nación is one of the best museums in Peru for learning about the country’s ancient empires, another “must do” visit.

Huayna Picchu A unique view of The Lost City of the Incas

Huayna Picchu

Huayna Picchu or Wayna Picchu is one of the famous mountain images in the world. With a height of 2667 meters above sea level, it beautifully raises over Machu Picchu. The Urubamba river bends around it and the Incas built a trail up the side of the mountain as well as temples and terraces on its top.

One path start at the north end of Machu Picchu, the road to the summit is made of narrow and steep roads, stairs carved into the rock right next to the mountain side walls and at the top, some small buildings and a large carved stone with a throne shape known as “seat of the Inca”.

Huayna Picchu

Its construction had to be arduous and dangerous. Some parts are slippery and steel cables provide support, you should wear appropiate footwear.

The most interesting thing here is the view of the Lost City of the Incas and the Urubamba river to the bottom of the Canyon, you can even hear its turbulent waters from such a high altitude.

The Temple of the Moon

From the summit, a second trail leads down to several caves and the misnamed Temple of the Moon, located in the northern side of the mountain. The name “Temple of the Moon” has no archaeological support, in any case, it reveals a common interest in quality by comparing it with other Inca monuments. Some of this caves have been lined with blocks of fine stonework carved to fit precisely with the irregular contourn of large rock outcrops that will serve as a roof.
Huayna Picchu

The caves are at a lower altitude than the starting point of the trail. The return path from the caves rounds up a loop around the mountain as it rejoins the main trail. The hike from the summit to the caves and back to the checkpoint takes about 2 more hours.

If you want to hike the Huayna Picchu trail, go no later than 9 am to be sure to get in. Be aware that during the rainy season tours are closed.
Huayna Picchu

Chimu Culture and Art

Chimu Culture

The Chimu culture was established on the northern coast of Peru, 1100 to 1400 AD. The centre of this culture was the city of Chan Chan. The ruins of the city cover almost an area of 20 square km.

The Chimu were an expansionist centralized state with clear divisions of class and a very complex bureaucracy. The economic and social system operated through a network of rural towns and the state was administered in the capital Chan-Chan.

Chimu Culture

The Chimu ceramics fulfilled both functions, for daily use or household and for ceremonial offerings. Chimu artisans worked in metal workshops divided into sections for each of the specialized treatment of metals.

Chimu Culture

With all these techniques, the Chimu produced a large quantity of objects such as cups, knives, containers, bracelets, pins, crowns, etc. Textiles were adorned with feathers and plates of gold and silver colors that were taken from certain plants .

Chimu Culture

The garments were made of four animals, the guanaco, the llama, alpaca and vicuña and from a native cotton plant that grows in a natural way in seven different colors. The clothing consisted of loincloths, sleeveless shirts with or without fringes, small ponchos, tunics, etc.

Moche Culture

Mochica or Moche culture emerged and developed in the centuries I and VII, taking place in the long and narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru where the remains of their pyramid temples, palaces, fortresses and irrigation systems are proof of their high artistic development and technological and complex organization.

The Moche innovated technology and metallurgical production with intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornaments, weapons and tools.

Moche Culture and Art

Chavin Culture

The art of the Chavín culture (900-200 B.C) influenced all its neighbours and was felt long after its decline. The Chavín was not a warlike culture and spread its influence through peaceful interaction.

The Chavin influenced an area covering most of the northern Peru’s highlands and coast. It is believed they worshipped the jaguars, since this animal appears in many of their pottery.
This period represents the greatest early development in weaving, pottery and agriculture.

Chavin Culture and Art

Chimu Culture

The Chimu Culture built a capital at Chan Chan, north of Trujillo. Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 20 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people.

Pottery from the Chimu Culture was mass-produced and manufactured from readily available clay found along the coast of Peru. Head cups, head vases, etc. are typical of the Chimu Culture. The winged eyes used in their artwork are said to be the eyes of dead souls, and it looks like they were meant to be funerary items. Designs on the cup rim, back, and sides resemble Mesoamerican writing.

Chimu Culture and Art

Peruvian Bracelets
The unique materials and beautiful designs used to create Peruvian bracelets make it ideal for both personal adornment and loving gifts for friends and family.

Peruvian Hats
The beautiful Peruvian hats offer shelter and comfort. They are made in Peru using Andean naturals colors. The smoothness of the inca hats impress you and the thermal protection is perfect for low temperatures.

Amazon Rainforest Peru

Amazon Rainforest Peru
About Peru History © Phil P Harris

The Amazon rainforest Peru is one of the country’s biggest tourist attractions. It covers more than half of Peru and accounts for thirteen percent of the total Amazon rainforest and seven percent of the rainforest left on the planet.

The Peru rain forest contains thousands of plants and animals that are not founds anywhere else in the world. Tourism is a way for Peru to create wealth without sacrificing one of its greatest natural resources and something that is unique and beneficial to the entire world.

Amazon Rainforest Peru
About Peru History © Matthew Romack

In the Amazon rainforest Peru has established a series of national parks and wildlife preserves to combat the threats from deforestation. The government is committed to preserving the Peru amazon jungle for future generations of its own people and the entire world. Hopefully the amazonas region will always be there for people to enjoy its beauty and as a home for creatures that live no where else.

Amazon Rainforest Peru
About Peru History © D.Raiser

The Peru jungle is located to the east of the mountainous Andean zone. The entire Amazon basin does not follow any national borders, covering a huge area of more than 2.5 million miles in South America. It is estimated to contain more than 400 types of mammals, 1,700 types of animals and 50,000 different types of plants. The residents of Peru recognize that the beauty and uniqueness of the amazonas region make it one of their biggest asset for tourism. Bringing in tourist dollars is a renewable source of income as opposed to logging which destroys the natural environment and is a one time benefit.

Amazon Rainforest Video

Fancy a ride through the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest? Watch this video and enjoy the amazing scenery.

Manu National Park

Manu National Park is a popular destination in the Amazon rainforest Peru. It is made up of three sections: the Manu National Park, the Manu Reserved Zone, and the Manu Cultural Zone. The National Park focuses on preserving the natural plants that grow in the rainforest. The Reserved Zone is the area designed for ecotourism.

Amazon Rainforest Peru

This area is kept as unaltered as possible so that visitors can see the Peru rain forest in its natural state. The Cultural Zone is designed to protect the animal species of the forest. When planning your visit, you should focus on the Reserved Zone. There you will see the true Peru jungle with the least amount of human intervention.
The verbal history of the Inca tells us that 11 more rulers would follow before the Inca were finally conquered by the Spanish.

Amazon Rainforest Peru Climate

It is important that you take time to learn about the climate of Peru before you plan your trip, especially if you are headed to the rainforest. The dry season lasts from May to September when it gives way to the wet season that runs constantly from November to April. The rains are relentless and can cause major delays in travel through the Peru Amazon Jungle. It will also limit your opportunities to get out and see the forest.

Amazon Rainforest Peru
Therefore it is highly recommended that you plan to visit during the dry season. With its focus on tourism, there are plenty of hotels and lodges to choose from. Most have a relaxed atmosphere and friendly staff. From your lodgings you can take a variety of day trips into the Amazon rainforest Peru to see the wonders it contains.

Peru Chachapoyas

Peru Chachapoyas Province is located in the amazonas region. The capital is Chachapoyas city, and is located in the mountains. Two main rivers run through this territory, the Utcubamba and the Sonche. A big part of the province is constituted by soils of puna, located between 4,000 and 5,000 metres (13,000 and 16,000 ft).

Chachapoyas city still preserves its wide colonial casonas of big courts and lounges, with roofs made of tiles, the Plaza de Armas is located to the west of the city. The city’s geographical location has determined its isolation until recently, when better roads were constructed between Chachapoyas and the cities of the northern Peruvian coast.

Peru Chachapoyas Province

In Shihual, a Magdalena’s district, there are a lot of calcareous caverns, which stalactites and stalagmites formations serve as habitat to diverse night birds. La Jalca has the privilege of being the first Spanish city that has been founded in the region: in effect, captain Alonso de Alvarado, conqueror of the Amazonas, on September 5, 1538 founded there the first city of San Juan de la Frontera de los Chachapoyas, which then would be moved to the place that it occupies now.

For Peter Lerche, an anthropologist, in la Jalca there is the legitimate Andean pre-Hispanic indigenous Peruvian culture, with traditional towns like Conila, Levanto, Colcamar, Luya. Fruit of his investigations initiated in 1980, he has published “Chachapoyas, travelers’ guide”. In this book he proposes some tourist circuits.

The first one of them, the shortest, can take in average 5 days, and the others, for more adventurous spirits, can take in average 15 days. There is daily service by bus to Chiclayo and Cajamarca.

Chachapoyas Climate

Peru Chachapoyas is unique for its climate and mountain range scenery. One of the peculiarities of this scenery are its extensive and matted wooded formations. During the rainy season, these formations are covered with a thick haze, from which the city’s name may be derived (from the Quechua word: sachapuyos, meaning “mount of haze”).

Another interpretation of the name Chachapoyas is the one that alludes its meaning of “strong male”. This meaning was reaffirmed by the courage of those who faced Tupac Inca Yupanqui and his 40 thousand soldiers with tenacious resistance.

In this part of the Peru, located in the eyebrow of the jungle, the average temperature is 18 °C and average relative humidity is 74 percent. However, in some areas the temperature can drop to 2 °C. Chachapoyas has a temperate climate and is moderately rainy.

Travel to Machu Picchu Prepare your soul for an idyllic dream

If you are planing to travel to Machu Picchu, “The Lost City of the Incas”, probably the best time to go is between May and October, the dry season. The ancient inca city looks like a dream, reality surpasses the imagination and this beautiful historical monument will make your holidays unforgettable.

The Intihuatana (

Intihuatana (solar clock) at Machu Picchu, Peru. © Jordan Klein

During your Machu Picchu vacations you will discover how the incas built this city in a rugged and isolated corner of Peru. The great citadel is located high in the Andes Mountains, 43 miles northwest of Cuzco at the top of a ridge. The Urubamba River bends around it and the area is covered in dense bush.

Travel to Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu Temple of the Sun. © Fabricio Guzmán

Roads, steps, fountains, temples and spectacular views are just a sample of what you will find when travelling to Machu Picchu, you can make your own arrangements, grab cheap tickets or get an all inclusive holidays package. Even if you dreamed about it for a lifetime, when you have it before you, it is greater than anything you might have imagine. Explore the sacred valleys, mountains, temples, ruins and trails. Try to find answers to the enigma around The lost city of the Incas, a misterious city.

Travel to Machu Picchu
Terraced Fields in Machu Picchu. © Christophe Meneboeuf

Machu Picchu Discovery

I can´t believe Machu Picchu was not rediscovered until 1911 by Hiram Bingham, an american explorer and politician. Only then, the world was aware of this magnificent place. Bingham was searching for Vilcabamba, the undiscovered last stronghold of the Incan empire but he found Machu Picchu instead.

The spanish conquistadors never found the city (they were in Peru for centuries) and no one ever led them there. That suggest to me that the ancient city was abandoned long time before that.

Travel to Machu Picchu, The Lost City of the Incas
Bingham, photo 1911
Machu Picchu – Bingham, photo 1911

“In the variety of its charms and the power of its spell, I know of no place in the world which can compare with it.

Not only has it great snow peaks looming above the clouds more than two miles overhead, gigantic precipices of many-colored granite rising sheer for thousands of feet above the foaming, glistening, roaring rapids; it has also, in striking contrast, orchids and tree ferns, the delectable beauty of luxurious vegetation, and the mysterious witchery of the jungle.”